My chosen topic was centered on the connections in Communism and American Sports. My research was process-oriented and could be summed up by the following question: Is there evidence of successful communist sporting leagues or organizations which developed through sport to positively impact members and surrounding communities? In the answer to that question, I relied heavily on one of our readings: C’mon You Reds: The U.S. Communist Party’s Workers’ Soccer Association by Gabe Logan. C’mon You Reds was relevant to our discussion on the establishment of organized soccer leagues in America. The reading brought to my attention the involvement of the United State’s Communist Party in facilitating workers soccer leagues. Furthermore, it brought to my attention the shortcomings of our educational system in the success of communism. Typically, communism in America is a tale filled with fear-mongering and government attempts to discourage its ideology. Historically, America has represented the antithesis of communism: a flourishing democracy, hailing a triumphant capitalistic economy with private ownership, whose citizens recognize the evils of the rule of the proletariat. However, Gabe Logan’s C’mon You Reds presents a new narrative of communism in America. Worker’s Soccer Leagues, or communist soccer leagues, organized soccer games for recreational play at low costs and in doing so made notable contributions to the surrounding community in the name of communism. My project aimed to rediscover communism in America through sports and re-structure the narrative of American communism to reflect the positive contributions made.

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The countries that have been significantly affected by sports and racism are Brazil and America. During the ancient times, which incorporates of the nineteenth century and the early twentieth century. For Brazil, the native activity has been common and known to many in sports. In America, some of the areas such as Mexico have been affected by racism. The same case when it comes to racism in America. Racism is an overall act that cannot be specified to be affecting a single area. However, it was rampant in America than Brazil since with time the spread slowed down in Brazil America. These are some of the key things that will help you know the right take in these matters in shaping the identification of different countries, may it be America or Brazil.


Sports in Brazil

Brazil is one of the countries that has been known as the origin of football. This argument is something that has drawn attention to many. Football was first introduced in Brazil in the late eighteenth century (Wood, D. (2019). This was so after the first student, Miller was induced to Bannister’s school at the age of 10. At a young age, he was curious and was into learning more about football. With the interest, he got the football interest. This marked the birth of football in Brazil. With this exposure, Miller became more experienced in dribbling, swerving, feigning, and use of speed in free kicks and heading. With this, he had the chance of interacting with clubs in 1892. On his return in 1888 at home. He brought back some of the equipment and the book rules that showed what they had to do when they were playing the game.

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Throughout this semester, we have learned each week about the countless ways that sports can inherently reflect different political, cultural, and social principles, as well as how sports and society mutually influence and shape each other. Within my digital research project, I analyzed the ways in which some primary source images of the 1930 World Cup, that took place in Uruguay, reflected how the values of a traditional Latin American culture were gradually straying away towards more modern ideologies. While researching for this project and reading about the cultural expectations of 20th century Uruguay, I immediately related the information to our discussion of Fútbolera: A History of Women and Sports in Latin America. Within my own research, I was able to identify the societal expectations of gender, femininity, and athleticism within the context of the 1930 World Cup, and the traditional, ideological principles proved to be intrinsically similar in comparison to the cultural experiences of female football players. Additionally, both Fútbolera and the 1930 World Cup reflect a transitional period occurring transnationally throughout the 20th century, specifically in regards to the gradual modernization of social expectations. The photographs of the World Cup introduced the rising presence of female spectators and sport fans within athletic stadiums, which inherently opposes the cultural expectations of Latin American societies that traditionally restrict women within the mold of domestication and condemn any influence of masculinity. This is also representative of the collective societal reaction to Futboleras within Latin American nations, because the idea of female athletes dismissed the acceptable role and expectations of women. Both of these historical experiences reflect the reoccurring theme of our course curriculum, specifically regarding the societal influence of sports and how the traditional expectations of those sports represent the expectations of the state.

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I wanted to do my digital project on a sport that many in the United States may be unfamiliar with and that is Formula 1. Formula 1 is one of the biggest sporting draws in Europe and South America but the history of the relationship between the sport and the US is complicated. The event would constantly change venues and eventually had a disastrous event in 2005 when only six of the twenty cars lined up on the grid for the race due to a tire dispute and safety concerns. This up and down nature of Formula 1 can be compared to the history of Soccer in the U.S. in my opinion. Soccer has had a hard time taking hold in the U.S. because of the popularity of the countries own national sports and pastimes. Baseball, Basketball, and especially American Football have long overshadowed Soccer and it has had a difficult time taking off. I thought this article that we read “A Stumbling Start for U.S. Pro Soccer” in some ways could speak to how Formula 1 has had a difficult time taking hold in the U.S.

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For my digital project I focused on the rise of Mexican boxing throughout the 20th to 21st century. Throughout this semester we focused on many themes and sports such as soccer, basketball, women’s physical appearance, equality, and fairness. So, I decided to switch it up and go with one of the best and known combat sport, boxing. Our class read just a small portion about boxing, with President Roosevelt being one of the main stars. Although it was American boxing, I chose to go with the passion of Mexican boxing. Mexican boxing began with a slow start but soon rose to become a national powerhouse. Today, if you take a look at the rankings you will see how many Mexican boxers are high up, while succeeding throughout their careers.

My topic was surrounded about the history of Mexican boxing. Some argue Mexican boxing did not turn out the way it needed to be, but I disagree. I believe Mexican boxing was built from the ground up, becoming much larger than expected. Boxers such as Julio Cesar Chavez, Juan Manuel Marquez, Oscar De La Hoya, and Canelo Alveraz have made a mark in how Mexican boxing has become so popular. These boxers not only made their mark, but were great champions. Julio Chavez is considered one of the greatest Mexican and overall boxers in history.

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All throughout the semester we have learned about different themes that that have affect the Americas and their sports. Sports have always impacted the world in great ways so it is important to understand why they do or how they affect us. I did my project on Cuban baseball and the exhibition games that occurred in 1999 and 2016. I talked about the Cuban and American relations before the exhibition games and after. I talked about how the sport of baseball was able to bring more people together and how this one sport helped bring Cuba and the US closer together. I got a lot of information from the book The Pride of Havana: A History of Cuban Baseball written by González Echevarría, Roberto The reading talks about the history of baseball in Cuba and shares some backstory on the sport in Cuba. Reading this chapter of the book was very good research for my project because it helped me understand how important baseball was to Cuba and to Cubans. I found this interesting because normally when people think of Cuba they think of Fidel Castro or the Cuban Missile crisis.

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My project ‘Sports Impact on Cleveland’ researches the history, and economic importance of Cleveland’s professional sports programs to the city of Cleveland. Which mainly ties with the overall goal/theme of the course, how sports have shaped identities across the Americas. Cleveland, Ohio was once an industrial powerhouse at the turn of the twentieth century, although looking at the city today it tells almost an entirely different story. Since the 1960s and 1970s Cleveland has had a steady decline economically, through this time of decline their professional sports teams have helped the city economically, and socially. Whether these teams were doing good or not, they brought its citizens together in celebration or devastation. Cleveland celebrated an NBA championship, and a winless NFL season almost simultaneously, which shows how Clevelanders love their teams. In my video I talked about the importance of the three professional teams playing year round has on bolstering the downtown economy of Cleveland, because of how close together the stadiums are to each other has given opportunity to restaurants and eateries to flourish.

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The West Indies topic that I chose linked up with the topics that we talked about this semester. I think the topic that most matched up with the topic I decided to talk about is in regard to race and racial identity. The West Indies Cricket team always had the burden of being the team that carried Black Pride along with Caribbean Pride as a part of their heritage and history. The Caribbean is a collection of small islands that for their modern history have almost always been controlled by a foreign power and mostly by England. Utilizing the game of Cricket, created by the British, was a way for their colonies to “get even” with them, by defeating them on the pitch and without war. The West Indies teams took great pride in this because often, the British liked to portray a superiority complex when it came to the game of Cricket. Being defeated by a colony empowered those in the colony, while striking a blow against England’s seeming superiority of their empire.

I think one article that comes to mind when I think of the British superiority complex in Cricket was the article about an American weightlifter that had toured around the world. Though not from England, the article made America look pompous and arrogant to the rest of the world as opposed to dominant and powerful. The same example could be explained with Cricket.

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 For my digital project I dove into the world of cornhole and more specifically the success of the ACL over the ACO. This divide of power most similarly brought my attention back to our week 13 reading about US and Latin American sports. In the article “Raceball by Rob Ruck” (Chapter 6 – ¡Viva México!) we see how the MLB had a virtual monopoly on players and little to no competition especially after the failure of the Mexican league. While not completely on the same level we see this monopoly forming in the sport of cornhole. The ACL has a stronghold on the sport primarily because it is main competitor the ACO cannot keep up. Thus, they have been able to hoard the top talent and improve revenue generating power for future success. As of now the ACL is the only major cornhole league garnering national attention from the likes of ESPN.

The second connection to our readings was made with the week three readings discussing sports in the age of Covid-19. In Andrew McGregor’s piece “Covid-19 Presents an Ideal Time to Rethink College Sports

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I absolutely love learning about politics and how it is used by governments. In this class, I have greatly enjoyed learning about how sports can and were used for the progress of a political view. For example “While the World Watched,” the Argentine government used the 1978 World Cup to display Argentine achievements. While simultaneously they used the same World Cup to cover up acts of state terror. Politics are so interwoven into sports, I knew that for my digital project I had to look at politics. Hence the reason why I decided to look at how Fidel Castro had an impact on the growth of baseball in Cuba. 

When the class talked with Katie Taylor (scholar on women’s football), she hinted at how sports depend on the inclusion of the media. Depending on the media, sports will grow exponentially or struggle to survive. The same could be said about the way politics interact with sports. The support or their lack of could make or break a sport. For example, I think of college football and how the national champions are invited to the White House. However, when I look at the WNBA, I do not see the same endearment from the government in the media as bluntly clear. Turning this to baseball in Cuba, I wondered how much of an impact the Fidel Castro regime had on the growth of baseball. 

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